The welfare reform bill has now completed its passage through the House of Lords and only awaits the formality of the granting of royal assent before it becomes law.

Despite a great deal of resistance from online campaigners and cross-bench peers, the bill survived largely unscathed. Ultimately, it was untouched by the amendments passed in the House of Lords, such as paying contribution –​based employment and support allowance(ESA) for two years rather than one.

The bills successful passage through the lords means that a number of radical changes to the benefits system, such as the benefits cap, time limiting ESA and the replacement of disability living allowance with personal independence payment now face no further obstacles.